Of course, any car includes a lot of sources of noise. If the car business class is still in the production phase, the acoustic characteristics of machines, special attention, in the most available for human models of protection against noise is usually very small. Experts advise in this case not to save on their comfort. However, today in the domestic market have luxury materials, is quite affordable. Their handling of individual machine parts is the key to good health and safety of stay in the vehicle.
Zone of the formation and penetration of noise
The suppression of noise is carried out in two main areas - a reduction of the vibration component in the overall structure of the sound load limit entering the cabin noise from external sources. When selecting a sound absorption and insulation materials for the car should be done little analytical work. First of all, select important from the point of view of noise generation section and the associated problems:
- engine compartment: the engine mechanical rattling;
- door: wind noise, mechanical rattling and the sound vibration;
- floor: traffic noise, noise transmission and distribution of excess heat (cold);
- bulkhead engine compartment: excess heat, road noise, engine noise;
- trunk: road noise, mechanical rattling and the sound vibration;
- rear: mechanical rattling and the sound vibration;
- ceiling: wind noise and excess heat (cold);
- front panel: mechanical rattling plastic squeaks.
After studying the section problem areas in the vehicle, it is necessary to determine the need for separate measures for noise abatement or to carry out complex processing of the surfaces exposed to the negative effects. Will try in a compressed form to present the main methods and tools to ensure acoustic security in each of the presented place.
Insulation engine compartment
In relation to the elimination or significant reduction of primary and secondary noise from the power unit can be limited to point sound insulation of the hood and plate walls, and it is possible to apply the method of complete encapsulation. It lies in the maximum circuit of the sound vibrations in the area of their occurrence and the installation of a barrier to their spread outward into the cabin and surrounding area. And in that and in other case, can not do without installation of the means of absorption of vibrations that inevitably arise when working crank and other mechanisms are concentrated under the hood. For this purpose, suitable absorbers with a thickness of 2-2,5 mm, are applied to a flat surface around the engine. For wings it is better to use a more dense and rigid material designed for curved surfaces. Mounting can be further pave dumfermline elements. On top of the vibration absorber is installed a layer of teplozvukoizolyatsiya thickness of 10-15 mm, generally based on polyurethane.
The sound insulation of the car doors
The door frame with its inner side is processed by a damping and sound-absorbing components. However, for this part of the case, such measures would not be enough. Available in the elements window and the mechanism for opening and fixing also require appropriate manipulation of the increase in the density and stiffness of their joints. In addition, the note will have decorative trim and possible presence of the loudspeaker system. As for plating, it will be useful to glue it on the inner side with a thin layer (about 1 mm) of composite materials with sound-absorbing and sealing properties. Speaker must be permanently attached to the special solid podium and laid on all sides vibrocompression coating. All of these tools will minimize the influence of external factors, structural sound and multimedia devices.
Treatment of the floor surface.
The support surface area can be attributed to one of the busiest sections of the vehicle in terms of interaction with air flow, reflected from the road surface waves caused by noise and vibrations in the drivetrain, wheels, exhaust system. Therefore, the floor surface must be protected. To do this, use a vibration-proof material with a high density and a thickness of about 2-3 mm. To reduce the penetration of sound vibrations used modern tools on polyethylene foam or polyurethane foam-based with a thickness of 8-10 mm. it is important to choose the material with everything else insulating qualities.
Improving the efficiency prigorodnogo shield
The main obstacle to the propagation of acoustic and mechanical vibrations from the engine into the cabin falls on the plate, separating the two parts of the body. As already mentioned, when encapsulation or the implementation of restrictive measures, it is covered with a protective layer from the side of the underhood parts. Nevertheless, from the salon this element is subjected to thorough processing. This is a standard "couple" of the vibration absorber and 10 mm noise isolation.
Soundproofing Luggage compartment
To eliminate negative acoustic effects are basically the Luggage compartment is subjected to the protection in two planes: the inner side of the cover and the outdoor part under the skin. When forming the noise component of the cover, it is possible to navigate the same detail of the hood. The supporting surface can be recommended as a barrier vibration biomaterialia parts with a thickness of about 2 mm. And to eliminate some of the sound effects used traditional sound proofing 10-20 mm cross section.
Elimination of noise in the back of the car
In the rear of the machine depending on the type of its body can accommodate a fifth door or a shelf. And in that and in other case it is necessary between the sheathing and the metal base further pave the damping and cushioning materials. Thus as the latter is better to use the tool, which prevents the occurrence of scratches and the so-called "crickets", for example, Madeline. If you have speakers subwoofer you can use little "tricks". It consists in the openings in the rear shelf holes, installing them in a metal mesh and wrapping the front side of the fabric. In this case, sound energy will not fully collapse on the elements of the rear compartment, causing them to wobble and all sorts of foreign interference, and to freely pass into the cabin without serious obstacles and distortions. The owners of five-door cars don't forget about adjusting locks and hinges become loose, and time to change a rubber seal.
Improving the insulating properties of the roof
During movement of the vehicle and operation of the acoustic system decorative ceiling starts to vibrate, thereby increasing the level of internal cabin noise. However, if between the roof and the decorative trim to install the intermediate insulator, the vibration of the ceiling will be reduced almost to a minimum. As such a component can be used vibration or noise or a combination of products of small thickness and specific mass. The latter is due to their location and the likelihood of peeling and loose conformance to the reference plane, which may neutralize the benefit of their presence.
Elimination of the "sound" of the instrument panel
The instrument panel or dashboard is a molded plastic parts which are attached to or are adjacent to different other finishes the front of the cabin. To neutralize the sound of their movement or the contact details are all available pave the sealing means possessing somewhat and noise insulation properties. This is usually made of strips with a thickness of 4-5 mm and a width of 10-15 mm, which creates a system with a limited relative displacement and the repayment of the hard interaction of joints and surfaces. We should not forget about secondary sources of unpleasant sounds, to which can be attributed to the device temperature control (climate control, heater, air conditioner) cable and wiring of the car. First protected by a thin (1-2 mm) of the damper, the second collected into bundles, wrapped in sealing, resistant to external influences, material and fixed inside the panel. It is useful in this part of the interior trim will be the treatment that prevents the appearance of scratches.
As you can see from the material, to achieve a positive result, mindlessly applying the first material, it is impossible. The more will not solve the problem of excessive noise is homemade and not intended for this cover. To Your work and the invested funds are not spent for nothing, will still have little insight into the issue. The second condition for a successful tuning will be buying the kit in a safe place, in particular on the Internet site of a leading retailer of auto accessories - company DDaudio (view all materials for soundproofing cars).